Scholars in the social sciences and humanities are in a unique position to support InHerit’s mission. Use your expertise for the global good by helping indigenous communities to manage and conserve their heritage.

  • Introduce indigenous leaders or organizations to InHerit and connect them with opportunities for funding to support heritage conservation.
  • Participate in InHerit’s online global dialogue about cultural heritage. Share eyewitness accounts of heritage loss and survival. Bring attention to heritage places or indigenous communities facing serious threats.
  • Build the capacity of children, communities and nonprofits to manage, promote, and conserve their threatened living and ancient heritage. Visit our Bazaar to:
    • Invest in a specific InHerit program or community partner
    • Purchase a tax-deductible InHerit children’s book or illustrated oral history
    • Support the sustainability of InHerit through a tax-deductible donation
    • Check out the references to scholarly articles and links to pertinent sites for academics. Have we missed an important reference or link? Let us know at


Take a look at this partial list of academic resources on heritage, indigeneity, and community-based archaeology for an article or book you may have missed. If we have missed an important article, please email us at with the reference so we can add it!

Ardren, Traci. 2004. “Where are the Maya in Ancient Maya Archaeological Tourism?  Advertising and the Appropriation of Culture,” in Marketing Heritage. Edited by Y. Rowan and U. Baram, pp. 103-113. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Ardren, Traci. 2002. “Conversations about the production of archaeological knowledge and community museums at Chunchucmil and Kochol, Yucatan, Mexico.” World Archaeology 34(2): 379-400.

Atalay, Sonya. 2010  ‘We don’t talk about Çatalhöyük, we live it’: building community capacity through archaeological research using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology. World Archaeology 42(3):418-429.

Atalay, Sonya. 2008. “Multivocality and Indigenous Archaeologies,” in Evaluating Multiple Narratives: Beyond Nationist, Colonialist, Imperialist Archaeologies. Edited by J. Habu, C. Fawcett, and J. M. Matsunaga, pp. 29-44. New York: Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.

Atwood, Roger. 2004. Stealing History: Tomb Raiders, Smugglers, and the Looting of the Ancient World.  New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Barahona, M. 1998. “Introducción: Imagen y Percepción de los Pueblos Indígenas en Honduras,” inRompiendo el Espejo: Visiones sobre los Pueblos Indígenas y Negros en Honduras. Edited by Marvin Barahona and Ramón Rivas, pp. 17-33. Servicio Holandés de Cooperación al Desarrollo (SNV): Tegucigalpa.

Bartu, Ayfer. 2000. “Where is Catalhoyuk? Multiple Sites in the Construction of an Archaeological Site.” InTowards Reflexive Method in Archaeology: An Example from Catalhoyuk. Ian Hodder, ed. Pp. 101-110. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Breglia, Lisa. 2006. Monumental Ambivalence: the Politics of Heritage. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Brodie, N., and C. Renfrew. 2005. Looting and the World’s Archaeological Heritage: The Inadequate Response. Annual Review of Anthropology 34:343-61.

Castañeda, Quetzil E. 1996. In the Museum of Maya Culture: Touring Chichen Itza. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Castañeda, Quetzil E. 2008. The “Ethnographic Turn” in Archaeology: Research Positioning and Reflexivity in Ethnographic Archaeologies. In Q.E. Castañeda and C.N. Matthews, eds., Ethnographic Archaeologies: Reflections on Stakeholders and Archaeological Practices. Altamira, Lanham, MD.

Castañeda, Quetzil E. 2009. The ‘Past’ as Transcultural Space: Using Ethnographic Installation In the Study of Archaeology. Public Archaeology 8 (2-3):262-282.

Coggins, Clemency C. 1969. Illicit Traffic in Pre-Columbian Antiquities. Art Journal 29: 94-98.

Colwell-Chanthaphonh, Chip, and T. J. Ferguson. Editors. 2008. Collaboration in Archaeological Practice: Engaging Descendant Communities. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Corntassel, J. J. 2008. “Who is Indigenous? “Peoplehood” and Ethnonationalist Approaches to Rearticulating Indigenous Identity,” in The Concept of Indigenous Peoples in Asia: A Resource Book. Edited by Christian Erni, pp. 51-76. IWGIA Document No. 123. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA): Copenhagen.

Cuxil, Antonio. 2010. My Life as a Kaqchikel Mayan Tour Leader and Maya Researcher in Guatemala. InBeing and Becoming Indigenous Archaeologists, edited by G. P. Nicholas, pp. 93-100. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, CA.

Daes, E. A. 1996. Working Paper on the Concept of “Indigenous People”. UN Doc. E/CN.4/SUB.2/AC.4/1996/2 (, accessed May 18, 2010).

Daes, E. A. 2008. “Standard-setting Activities: Evolution of Standards Concerning the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: On the Concept of “indigenous people,” in The Concept of Indigenous Peoples in Asia: A Resource Book. Edited by Christian Erni, pp. 29-50. IWGIA Document No. 123. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA): Copenhagen.

Dongoske, Kurt E., Michael Yeatts, Roger Anyon, and T.J. Ferguson. 1997. “Archaeological Cultures and Cultural Affiliation: Hopi and Zuni Perspectives in the American Southwest.”  American Antiquity 62(4): 600-608.

Downer, Alan S., Jr., Alexandra Roberts, Harris Francis, and Klara B. Kelley. 1994. “Traditional History and Alternative Conceptions of the Past.”  In Conserving Culture: A New Discourse on Heritage. Mary Hufford, ed. Pp. 39-55. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Ebbitt McGill, Alicia. 2011. “Dis da fi wi Hischri?: Archaeology Education as Collaboration With Whom? For Whom? By Whom?” Archaeological Review 26(2): PP.

Edgeworth, Matt. 2006. “Multiple Origins, Development, and Potential of Ethnographies of Archaeology.” InEthnographies of Archaeological Practice: Cultural Encounters, Material Transformations. Matt Edgeworth, ed. Pp. 1-19. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Fruhsorge, Lars. 2007. Archaeological Heritage in Guatemala: Indigenous Perspectives on the Ruins of Iximché. Archaeologies 3:39-58.

Gilgan, Elizabeth. 2001. “Looting and the Market for Maya Objects: a Belizean Perspective,” in Trade in Illicit Antiquities: the Destruction of the World’s Archaeological Heritage. Edited by N. Brodie, J. Doole, and C. Renfrew, pp. 73-87. Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.

Henderson, Victoria. 2006. (Dis)Articulating Community: A critique of ‘community studies’ in Guatemala With Suggestions for Future Research.

Hervik,  Peter and Hilary E. Kahn 2006 Scholarly Surrealism: The Persistence of Mayanness. Critique of Anthropology  26(2): 209–32

Hodder, Ian. 2003. “Sustainable Time Travel: Toward a Global Politics of the Past.” In The Politics of Archaeology and Identity in a Global Context. Susan Kane, ed.  Pp. 139-147. Boston, MA: Colloquia and Conference Papers 7, Archaeological Institute of America.

Joyce, Rosemary A. 2003. “Archaeology and Nation Building: A View from Central America.” In The Politics of Archaeology and Identity in a Global Context. Susan Kane, ed. Pp. 79-100. Boston, MA: Colloquia and Conference Papers 7, Archaeological Institute of America.

Kohl, Philip L. 1998.  “Nationalism and Archaeology: On the Constructions of Nations and the Reconstructions of the Remote Past.” Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 223-246.

Kohl, Phillip L. and Clare Fawcett. 1995. “Archaeology in the Service of the State: Theoretical Considerations.” In Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. Philip L. Kohl and Clare Fawcett, eds.  Pp. 3-18. Cambridge: University Press.

Logan, J. 2009. Constructing Indigeneity in Argentina: at the Crossroads of Mountaineering, Tourism, and Re-ethnification. Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 14:405-431.

Loker, W.M. 2009. “From Indigenous Movement to Indigenous Management: Conflict and Accomodation in Ch’orti’ Maya Ethnopolitics” in The Ch’orti’ Maya Area: Past and Present. Edited by B.E. Metz, C.L. McNeil, and K.M. Hull, pp. 230-245. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

Magnoni, Aline, Traci Ardren, and Scott Hutson. 2007. Tourism in the Mundo Maya: inventions and (mis)representations of Maya identities and heritage. Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress 3:353–383.

Matsuda, David. 1998. The Ethics of Archaeology, Subsistance Digging, and Artifact Looting in Latin America. International Journal of Cultural Property 7:89-98.

McNiven, Ian. J., and Lynette Russell. 2005. Appropriated Pasts: Indigenous Peoples and the Colonial Culture of Archaeology. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

Merlan, F. 2009. Indigeneity: Global and Local. Current Anthropology 50:303-333.

Meskell, Lynn. 2003. “Pharonic Legacies: Postcolonialism, Heritage, and Hyperreality.” In The Politics of Archaeology and Identity in a Global Context. Susan Kane, ed. Pp. 149-171. Boston, MA: Colloquia and Conference Papers 7, Archaeological Institute of America.

Metz, Brent. 2010. Questions of Indigeneity and the (Re)-Emergent Ch’orti’ Maya of Honduras. Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology 15(2): 289-316.

Montejo, Victor D. 2002. “The Multiplicity of Mayan Voices: Mayan Leadership and the Politics of Self-Representation,” in Indigenous Movements, Self-Representatin, and the State in Latin America. Edited by K. B. Warren and J. E. Jackson, pp. 123-148. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Morales, T., and C. Camarena. 2000. Los museos comunitarios: Estrategia para resguardar el patrimonio arqueolóico. In Sociedad y patrimonio arqueológico en el valle de Oaxada, Memoria de la Segunda Mesa Redonda de Monte Albán, pp. 271-278. INAH, México.

Mortensen, Lena.  2009. “Producing Copán in the Archaeology Industry” in Ethnographies and Archaeologies: Iterations of the Past. Edited by Lena Mortensen and Julie Hollowell, pp. 178-218. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

Mortensen, Lena M. 2009. “Copan Past and Present: Maya Archaeological Tourism and the Ch’orti’ in Honduras,” in The Ch’orti’ Maya Area: Past and Present. Edited by B.E. Metz, C.L. McNeil, and K.M. Hull, pp. 246-257. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.

Murray, T. 2009. “The Power of the Past: Environment, Aborigines, Archeology, and a Sustainable Australian Society,” in Questioning Collapse: Human Resilience, Ecological Vulnerablity, and the Aftermath of Empire. Edited by P. A. McAnany and N. Yoffee, pp. 299-328. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nicholas, George. 2010. “Seeking the End of Indigenous Archaeology” in Bridging the Divide: Indigenous Communities and Archaeology into the 21st Century. Edited by Harry Allen and Caroline Phillips, pp. 223-252. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Nicholas, George P. 2008. Native Peoples and Archaeology. In The Encyclopedia of Archaeology, vol. 3, edited by Deborah Pearsall, pp. 1660–1669. Oxford: Elsevier, Oxford.

Niezen, Ronald. 2003. The Origins of Indigenism: Human Rights and the Politics of Identity. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Omland, Atle. 2006. “The Ethics of the World Heritage Concept.”  In The Ethics of Archaeology: Philosophical Perspectives on Archaeological Practice. Chris Scarre and Geoffrey Scarre, eds.  Pp. 242-259. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Orser, C. E., Jr. 2007. “Transnational Diaspora and Rights of Heritage,” in Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. Edited by H. Silverman and D. F. Ruggles, pp. 92-104. New York: Spring Science + Media, LLC.

Parks, Shoshaunna. 2010. The Collision of Heritage and Economy at Uxbenká, Belize. International Journal of Heritage Studies 16(6): 434-448.

Parks, Shoshaunna, Patricia A. McAnany, and Satoru Murata. 2006. The Conservation of Maya Cultural Heritage: Searching for Solutions in a Troubled Region. Journal of Field Archaeology 31(4):425–432.

Pelican, M. 2009. Complexities of Indigeneity and Autochthony: an African Example. American Ethnologist36:52-65.

Pyburn, K. Anne. 1998 Consuming The Maya. Journal Of Dialectical Anthropology 23:111-129.

Pyburn, K. Anne. 2009 Practicing Archaeology – As If It Really Matters. Public Archaeology (8)2-3: 161-175.

Pyburn, K. Anne. 2011. Engaged Archaeology: Whose community? Which Public? In New Perspectives in Global Public Archaeology, K. Okamura and A. Matsuda eds, Springer: New York.

Pyburn, K. Anne and Richard Wilk. 1995. Responsible Archaeology Is Applied Anthropology. In Ethics in American Archaeology:  Challenges For The 1990s, Mark Lynott and Alison Wylie, eds. Pp. 71-76, Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.

Santos-Granero, Fernando. 1998. “Writing History into the Landscape: Space, Myth, and Ritual in Contemporary Amazonia.” American Ethnologist 25(2): 128-148.

Schmidt, Peter R. and Thomas C. Patterson. 1995. “Introduction: From Constructing to Making Alternative Histories.” In Making Alternative Histories: The Practice of Archaeology and History in Non-Western Settings. P.R. Schmidt and T.C. Patterson, eds.  Pp. 1-24. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research.

Shanks, Michael and Christopher Tilley. 1992. Re-Constructing Archaeology: Theory and Practice. 2nd Edition. New York: Routledge.

Silberman, Neil Asher. 1995. “Promised Lands and Chosen Peoples: The Politics and Poetics of Archaeological Narrative,” in Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology. Philip L. Kohl and Clare Fawcett, eds.  Pp. 249-262. Cambridge: University Press.

Silverman, Helaine and D. F. Ruggles. 2007. “Cultural Heritage and Human Rights,” in Cultural Heritage and Human Rights. Edited by H. Silverman and D. F. Ruggles, pp. 3-29. New York: Spring Science and Media LLC.

Smith, Claire, and H. Marin Wobst, editors. 2005. Indigenous Archaeologies: Decolonizing Theory and Practice. Routledge, New York.

Stottman, M. Jay, ed. 2010. Archaeologists as activists: can archaeologists change the world? Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Trigger, Bruce G. 1995. “Romanticism, Nationalism, and Archaeology.” In Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology, Philip L. Kohl and Clare Fawcett, eds. Pp. 263-279. Cambridge: University Press.

Truscott, Marilyn C. 2004. “Is Community Archaeology the Future? An Examination of Community-based Archaeology in Australia Today and its Origins.” The Artefact 27: 29-35.

Watkins, Joe. 2000. Indigenous Archaeology: American Indian Values and Scientific Practice. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.


    Additional links to valuable information about indigenous heritage and archaeological conservation.


INAH (National Institute of Anthropology and History)  – Mexico

CDI (National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Communities) – Mexico

Institute of Archaeology – Belize

National Institute of Culture and History (NICH) – Belize

Ministry of Culture and Sports – Guatemala

Academia de Lenguas Mayas (ALMG) – Guatemala

IHAH (Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History) – Honduras

American Institute of Archaeology (AIA) – United States

Society for American Archaeology (SAA) – United States

World Archaeological Congress (WAC)

UCLA Cotsen Institute of Archaeology

University College London (UCL) Institute of Archaeology

Stanford Archaeology Center



Project Guate

The Maya Conservancy

Friends of the Maya

Center for World Indigenous Studies (CWIS)

Native American and Indigenous Studies Association (NAISA)

The Amazon Conservation Team (ACT)

Amazon Watch


American Anthropological Association (AAA)

Latin American Studies Association (LASA)

Indigenous People Law and Policy Program

Society for Applied Anthropology

Oral History Association

Native Research Network

The American Indian Studies Consortium



Survival International

Amnesty International

Human Rights Watch

Fondo Indigena

UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII)

Society for Threatened Peoples

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

Minority Rights Group

Native Web

Oxlajuj Ajpop

Cultural Survival

Ak’ Tenamit Association

Indian Country Today

Tebtebba (Indigenous Peoples’ International Centre for Policy Research and Education)

Seventh Generation Fund 

Native Earthworks Preservation

Indigenous Rights Quarterly   

Worldbank: Latin American Indigenous Peoples

Asian Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Network

Forum for Friends of Peoples Close to Nature (fPcN) 


International Ecotourism Society (TIES)

The Nature Conservancy

Conservation International

Volun Tourism

Cultural Heritage Tourism

New Global Citizen

Yes! Magazine

Cross Cultural Solutions



Global Glimpse

Heritage Education Programs

US Dept. of State Cultural Programs Division

Diversity Council

Museo Popol Vuh

FLACSO (Facultad Latino America de Ciencias Sociales)

National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI)


Wiser Earth

Indigenous Cultures Institute

Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage

The Cultural Conservancy

Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies, Inc. (FAMSI)

ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites)

Maya Archaeology Initiative (MAI)


Saving Antiquities for Everyone (SAFE)

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization)

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